Our Family Legacy
Chapter 1 ENGLAND
This is the story of the migration of the family of Thomas Sharratt Smart and his wife Ann Hayter from their homes in England to their final destination in Franklin, Idaho.
To begin with here follows a brief description of their ancestry.
Thomas's father, William Smart, was a truck-gardner owning several pieces of land in Upper Stonnall, Shentsone Parish, Staffordshire, England; and often sent Thomas with their produce to the market in the city. He taught his children to be industrious and thrifty. He died as a Yeoman (a small free-holding farmer) which was a rank below a gentleman in England.
Thomas's mother, Mary Mariah Sharratt (daughter of Thomas) was christened on 1 September 1796 in the church of St. Mar's in the city of Lichfield, Staffordshire, England. She was the eldest child of three born to Thomas Sharratt (or Sherratt) and Jane Bird.
Thomas's Grandfather Sherratt, named Thomas (son of William), died in 1800 shortly after the birth of their third child. The family had been Chandlers (candle-stick makers) and no doubt Jane continued the business in Lichfield after his death. The city was noted for its three-spired cathedral and fairs which were held in the square in front of St. Mary's church where Mary had been christened; William Smart probably met her in such a setting.
Now as to Ann Hayter's family. She was born 18 Sep. 1822 at Portsmouth, Hampshire, England as recorded by her father in a record copied by her son William Henry Smart when he visited England in 1886. Her mother Keziah died four years later at No. 8 Buckland Place, in Porsea, a suburb of Portsmouth; the family had lived in the Parish of Portsea and attended the Church of St. Marys since 1804 when their first child was born.
Ann's father Henry Hayter was born 31 Dec. 1785 in the Parish of Petersfield, Hampshire about 13 miles N.E. of Portsea. He was the first son born to Stephen Hayter and Elizabeth Luff of Petersfield. When Henry was about 10 years old the family moved to Cosham Village in Wymering Parish adjoining the Parish of Portsmouth to the North. Henry advanced through the ranks of common labourer to Brickmaker to Brickburner. After his marriage to Kezia Dennis in 1803 they reared their family in Portsea Parish, attending the Church of England at St. Mary's Chapel near Landport. Fifteen years after the death of his first wife he married Sophia Purkis, late Cleverly, late Parr. By her he had two more children who died quite young. Henry died in 1862 at the age of 77 at his old home on Buckland Street in Landport in the Parish of Portsea. He was buried in the New Cemetery at Kingston near his daughter Sarah's home.
Ann's Grandfather Hayter was named Stephen. He was born about 1753, and was listed as age 75 when he died in 1828 at the Poor House in Wymering Parish. His birthplace has not been determined but after his marriage in 1785 to Elizabeth Luff they continued to reside in her home town of Petersfield where they occupied house No. 22 at Chapel Green. Here they reared their first four children before moving to Cosham Village in Wymering Parish where three more children were born to them. (He possibly could have had a wife previous to Elizabeth as he was age 32 at the time of his marriage to her.) At the time of his death his eldest son Henry had recently been widowed and was trying to rear his family of five-the youngest of which was our Ann who was then age 4. The next son was newly married and a mariner of soldier, no doubt away from home. Others in his family are not accounted for and thus we find him in the Poor House at the time of his death. A description of the home in which he died has not been found but may have been similar to a neighboring one in Portsea which is described thus: "kept very clean and the Poor appear to live very comfortably. Those who use tobacco are allowed two ounces a week. Either meat broth or a sort of gruel called flour broth is common for breakfast. Dinner 3 days a week consists of meat, and on the other 4 days bread and cheese. Suppers are bread and cheese. Beer is allowed at bread and cheese meals only. Each adult person has 1 pound of bread a day and 8 ounces of meat on meat days."
Ann's mother, Kezia Dennis was born about 1780 as she is listed as age 46 when she died in 1826 at Buckland Place in Portsea. Her parentage has not yet been determined but she was a niece of Richard Dennis of Portsea who died 1803-5. Kezia was the sole Executor of her uncle's will which was made in 1803 and proved in 1805. She is listed at that time as: "Kezia Hayter late Kezia Dennis within named the wife of Henry Hayter of Portsea in Co. Southampton, Labourer." Her husband Henry Hayter at the time of her death made the following notation on a piece of paper for inscription upon the stone of her grave: "Kezzia Hayter died at Portsmouth 25 June 1826. Denison before married." The name Denison was either a copy error he had forgotten her true maiden name as their marriage record in the Register of St. Mary's Portsea calls her Kezia Dennis, Spinster of this parish; and also we find her uncle's surname was Dennis.
Here begins the life of Thomas Sharratt Smart
14 Sep 1823 The Church of St. Peters in Stonnall, where Thomas was christened, was a small brick structure with a bell-tower above the front door located on a small hill with a graveyard on both sides of the walk leading to the front door. It was the custom in those days to place both a head-stone and a foot-stone upon graves there; such is the case of his parents graves, which can be seen at this day. His family had been farmers and pig-raisers in the surrounding countryside.
His parents home was later called "The Wottages" on Cranebrook Road in Lynn not too far from the Stonnall Church.
1830 Some of Thomas' youthful friends were: Charlotte Nutting of Shire Oak, Staffordshire b. 1816 and Hannah Wright of Shenstone b. 1807, for whom he later did temple work.(4)
abt 1833-40 Thomas and Ann were fairly well educated for their times. They had firm faith in God but little in the creed of the day. Thomas Sharratt Smart was the second son of his Father's family, which consisted of four boys and five girls. He had but little opportunity for education, but was schooled in the varied experiences of life. He being naturally of a God fearing spirit, thus his young life was directed in the channel of faith in God by the teachings of his parents, who taught him to pray...a virtue that ran through his whole life. His youth and boyhood was spent with his father upon the farm, in the garden and market. He was industrious, strong and trustworthy, which qualities won his fathers favor and at a very young age he was entrusted with much of his fathers affairs. It was his custom to arise as early as three o'clock in the morning, take charge of the carting of the produce and place it upon the market in the city early and in a fresh condition.
His father encouraged his children in industry and in bearing responsibility so that when, with the consent and good will of the family, he left the parental roof at the age of seventeen, he was fairly well equipped. He being of large, well knit stature, healthy and strong and carrying upon his face a reflection of an inward native uprightness, he had little trouble securing desirable employment.(5)
abt 1841 His older brother James chose for his business "Brick Manufacturing" (this being a natural business in Staffordshire where the clay was excellent - Josiah Wedgewood Pottery nearby in the Potteries of Staffordshire). It was with this older brother that he labored obtaining his first experience in the Brick-manufacturing business. He engaged in this business int his won native land for some-time (possibly living in Portsea, Hampshire where Ann Hayter's father, Henry was also a Brickmaker and Brickburner). Thomas made rapid progress in a knowledge of this business and was soon sought after. He was offered a job burning one-million bricks in Normandy so he left his native land and went to France. (5, 6)
Chapter 2 FRANCE
Ann Hayter's Mother, Kezia, died when Ann was only 4 years old; she was probably unhappy in her father's home and ran away a few years later to live with her older sister Sarah who had been married in 1829, (by this time Ann would have been 7 years old. Many years later (in 1886) while on a visit to England her sister Charlotte told Ann's son William Henry that his Mother had run away. (log 5, 7, 17)
24 Oct 1841 Ann married Henry Fleet a son of Henry Fleet a Baker, he gave his occupation as Labourer. This event occurred in the Parish Church of St. Marys' in Southampton about 20 miles North West of her home in Portsea, a suburb of Portsmouth. Her sister Sarah Cooper was a witness to the wedding.
Shortly after their marriage the Fleets moved to France, where Henry had obtained a job as a teacher. Sarah told William Henry that she went to the ship to see her sister Ann off to France. Sarah's eldest daughter, Jane, said she remembered very well her aunt Ann and cried to (go) with her when she went to France.(17.)
5 Nov 1842 Their first child, Mary Ann Fleet, was born in Sandville, France according to an entry in the Smart Family Bible; however Logan L.D.S. Temple records give the place as Sandoille, France. This give the place as Sandoille, France. This leads the author to conclude the place was Sandouville (a suburb south of Le-Karve), Seine Maritime, France. This area has favorable brickmaking clay. (logs: 1, 2, 7, 15) The leached mull soils best suited for brickmaking were found in abundance in this area of Normandy to which Thomas went.
The process of brickmaking involves securing, preparing, mixing and forming, drying and then the burning and cooling process. This last step in the manufacturing of brick was where Thomas Smart was involved. Bricks were fired and cooled in a kiln, an oven-type chamber capable of producing temperatures of 1600-2000 degrees F. depending on the type of raw material. The earliest type of kiln, the scove, was merely a pile of dried bricks with tunnels at the bottom allowing heat from fires to pass through and upward in the pile of bricks; the walls and top were plastered with a mixture of sand, clay, and water to retain the heat; at the top the bricks were placed close together and vented for circulation to pull the heat up through the bricks. The clamp kiln in that the exterior walls were permanent, with openings at the bottom to permit firing of the tunnels. when the bricks were sufficiently fired, the heat was reduced, and they were allowed to cool gradually before removal from the kiln. (log 21)
1 Jan 1844 Their second daughter, Alice Fleet, was born in Pontlash, France according to the entry in the Smart family Bible. The author concludes this to be Pont-De-L'Arche, Eure, France; this area is favored for its clay which is used extensively in pottery and brickmaking. (logs: 1, 7, 15)
abt 1845 Some of our family histories say that Thomas Smart met Ann at a boarding-house she was running. He could have been directed to her by her father who was in the same business of brick-making. She was a hard worker and organizer and had a liking for the cultural things of life; her brother Harry played the violin and others in her family were musically inclined. She was having a hard time rearing two small children ( and was about to have a third), living with an alcoholic husband when she met Thomas, who had come to France to supervise the job of burning three million bricks.
1 March 1845 She subsequently left Harry Fleet and married Thomas Sharratt Smart at Havre, France according to family records; this is probably Le-Havre, Seine, Maritime, France.
10 Oct 1845-6 The third child, Louisa Fleet, was born to Ann Hayter at Parvey, France according to the Smart Family Bible; the author concludes this to be Pavilly (North-West of Rouen), Seine, maritime (another area favored with pottery clay). The 1850 Census record in St. Louis gives her age on a date that would indicate she was born in 1845; her mothers separation from Henry Fleet in 1845 caused some confusion in the dates. (logs: 1, 7, 22)
Social discontent in the 1840's in France was aggravated by the rise in the cost of living and the lack of employment which followed in the wake of the crises in both agriculture and industry. (log 23)
The Napoleonic Wars had ended. During the subsequent reign of Henry X and Louis Philippe, economic and political turmoil prompted the Smarts to leave France and accept the challenge of life in that raw, young republic, the United States of America. (24)
They crossed the ocean in a sailing vessel, and were eight weeks on the water, during which time they were subjected to all the discomforts surrounding such transportation at that time. They settled in St. Louis, Missouri in 1845, where many of French ancestry had lived for a long time. It was also a place where the local clay was noted for producing excellent fire brick. (5, 6, 25)
Chapter 3 ST. LOUIS
1845 The SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF CHARLOTTE SMART PARKINSON says that their family arrived in the city of St. Louis in 1845. (24)
The family at that time would have consisted of the father THOMAS SHARRATT SMART, his wife ANN and her three children namely MARY ANN age 3, ALICE age 1 and LOUISA a newborn baby. These three children were subsequently adopted by Thomas and treated as his own. (26)
The Levee was, as always, the high light of the commercial section; it was colorful and noisy with the steamboat whistles and roustabouts calling to one another while they worked to the rhythm of their levee songs. Bales of cotton and hemp and barrels of sugar and molasses were loaded on the heavy tandem-driven drays which rumbled up the hill over the cobblestones, disappearing into the narrow streets of the city. The year before nearly seven hundred steamboats served the port of St. Louis; this was the very peak of steamboating, when two or three tiers of boats jammed the St. Louis levee. (log 3)
St. Louis possessed the advantage of being built in a location where the best bricks could be made from the local clay. This was no doubt one of the motivating reasons that led the Smarts to settle here. Foreign markets were furnished clay for crucibles used in smelting furnaces; fire-brick made here by several firms was shipped to large manufacturing cities in the U.S. as well as to England and other major European manufacturing points. (log 1)
By 1830 numerous brick-yards had been established in Carondelet the lower part of the city of St. Louis and brick buildings had become the fashion of the day. (log 1)
8 Jan 1846 The ST. LOUIS ORGAN commented on the persecution of Mormons in Illinois. After criticizing Governor Ford for having acted unwisely, the paper said, "It is notorious that the great Mormon Eaters of the Upper Missouri were the greatest scamps in the country, and we have very good reason to believe that the same remarks would apply to the tribe who are now persecuting them in Illinois." The ORGAN then quoted the PEORIA REGISTER to the effect that Joseph and Hyrum had been murdered in "cold blood...an act of atrocity unparalleled in the history of the age," and that the persecutors will "continue to have apologists for their misdeeds, in the shape of some sixpenny journal of the calibre of the WARSAW SIGNAL, QUINCY WHIG, & etc." (27)
1846 The earliest school in the area was operated as part of the public school system of the state. One of the pioneers of the area who attended the public school was Mr. Luther Armstrong whose parents came in 1846. He recalled that he had had to go three miles to acquire his early education in a schoolhouse on the old Watson Road near the farm of Colonel Dent, the father-in-law of President Ulysses S. Grant. Other children were educated at home. School work done at home was not on a hit-and-miss basis for there was a regular time set aside for it each day. Indeed, education in the home included not only French, History and Rhetoric lessons but also musical training. Members of the family taught younger children to play musical instruments while they continued learning more advanced music themselves. The girls in a family were also taught to sew--not only to make many of their own clothes but to make many of the household necessities. (28)
Most nineteenth-century midwestern homes were built with a parlor, sometimes two, and it was kept in readiness to receive visitors. As a matter of fact, the parlor was usually "off limits" to the children in the family, who were not permitted in that room except on special occasions.
The accepted social practices at the time, and for many years, required the older residents of the neighborhood to call on newcomers to welcome them and get acquainted. The "neighborhood" of the 1850's was a much larger area than is usually meant by the modern use of the word.
While "calling" was most frequently done by the ladies of the neighborhood, it was not a social custom which they enjoyed exclusively. On New Years Day most of the homes were open to callers coming to extend New Year's greetings. Sometimes the wife would remain home to receive visitors, while the husband went around calling on the neighborhood.
Calling was a delightful form of entertainment in those early days, but it was by no means the only one. Most large families found a great deal of pleasure within their own homes. One of the most widely enjoyed activities was reading-in a day when the nearest library was in St. Louis and the best night-time reading light was a kerosene lamp or a candle. Undisturbed by a radio or television set, all of the family read books, magazines and newspapers.
Other leisure time activities enjoyed within the family group were games such as "jack straws", backgammon and chess. Many enjoyed horseback riding and walking through the woods near their home in nice weather. Family parties occasioned by baptisms, birthdays, wedding anniversaries, as well as house warmings were mentioned in some early diaries of the time. (28)
In the City itself a new town had sprung up by the side of the old stone, with long, well built streets and handsome rows of warehouses, constructed of the excellent gray limestone, quarried on the spot. The inhabitants of French extraction were, however, still numerous, both in their part of the town and in the neighboring villages; and it was amusing to the European to step aside the busy street to the quiet quarters of the lower division, where many a characteristic sight and sound could be observed. One might peep into the odd little coffee-houses to see those cosy balconies and settees - mark the prominent nose, rosy cheek, and the contented air and civil demeanor o f the males, and the intelligent eye and gossiping tongue of the females -listen to the sound of the fiddle, or perchance the jingle of a harpsichord, or spinnet, from the window of the wealthier habitant without remembering scenes int eh provinces of the mother country. (29)
1846 There was no dearth of entertainment in the town. food for mind and spirit was lavishly provided. The St. Louis Lyceum offered lectures on a variety of subjects, fostering interest in books now to be had at the Mercantile Library, which had opened early this year. Concert Hall was rarely without a good musical program or entertainment of some kind. In addition to plays, they had everything in their theater from opera to magicians. One vary popular kind of show was called "chemical pictures." These were dioramas lighted up in a special way so that the beholder felt as if he were really int he midst of the scene portrayed. There was a picture of Belchazzar's Feast and views of Jerusalem and Venice and of Seville that drew crowds for weeks in the winter or spring of 1845. In the winters the river froze solid, permitting the people to skate as far as Alton, dodging heavily laden wagon teams crossing from Illinois to the Missouri shore with coal.
Social activities were not to continue so placidly however in this locality, for ominous rumblings were now coming from the explosive Southwest. Feelings against the Mexicans for the terrible massacre of the Alamo were still high in Missouri, for many of the settlers of Texas had gone there from this state. Therefore, when war was finally declared in 1846, there was no difficulty in raising several companies of militia to take arms against Mexico. (30)
11 May 1846 On this day Congress passed an act, declaring that "By the act of the Republic of Mexico, a state of War exists between that Government and the United States"; and authorized the President to accept fifty thousand volunteers, among these were the Mormon volunteers who formed the MORMON BATTALION. (32)
Back in Illinois where the Mormons had been expelled, Governor Ford issued a call for thirty full companies of volunteers to serve for twelve months with the privilege of electing their own company and regimental officers. (32)
6 July 1846 Among the officers elected at Alton, Ill. (just north of St. Louis) in the Illinois First Regiment was a Major Morrison from St. Clair County, Illinois (across the river St. Louis). His full name was James Lowry Donaldson Morrison, called "Don" Morrison; his wife was Mary Ann Carlin a daughter of Governor Carlin, one time friend of the Mormons in Illinois. (32)
The Smart Family tradition mentioned in many of our family histories states that Thomas leased a farm in St. Louis (Carondelet) from a Major Morrison. Don Morrison is the only Major Morrison living in the area at this time period; but he didn't remain a Major for long, by August of 1846 he is listed as a Lt. Colonel at LaVacca and fought at the Battle of Buena Vista in January 1847. On 17 June 1847 his Regiment was discharged at Camargo, Mexico. He then commenced, immediately after the close of the Mexican War, to secure possession of large tracts of land by buying Warrants from Ex Soldiers. (32)
From this we can infer that Thomas Smart leased his farm from the Major sometime before August of 1846.
22 Sep 1846 The ST. LOUIS DAILY UNION reported: "The New Haven brought a number of families from Nauvoo to St. Louis. Many Mormons are leaving Nauvoo." (27)
29 Sep 1846 The ST. LOUIS DAILY UNION reported; "The New Haven brought down from Keokuk some forty families of Mormons whose purpose it is to settle in this city." (27)
6 Oct 1846 The ST. LOUIS WEEKLY REVILLE published a lengthy announcement from Peter G. Camden, Major of St. Louis: The MORMON SUFFERERS: in the recent expulsion and flight of the Mormons from Nauvoo and its vicinity, many of the poorest, most friendless and helpless have been left behind.... How or why these unfortunates are in their present condition, there is no time now to enquire...it should suffice that we have the highest authority and encouragement for believing it is always more blessed to give than to receive'...it is hoped that the people of St. Louis will, on this occasion, maintain their former high character for sympathy and liberality." (27)
22 Aug 1848 A neighbor's daughter married a young officer who was to become important in United states political affairs. Her name was Julia Dent and the bridegroom was 2nd Lt. Ulysses S. Grant. The Dents live on an estate they called "White Haven" -in later years it was called "Grantwood", (it was about two and a half miles N.W. of the farm the Smarts were leasing). (63)
Ulysses had been stationed at Jefferson Barricks (about one mile S.E. of the Smarts home) as a young graduate from West Point in 1843. He became acquainted with the Dents through their son, a classmate of his. Grant in his Memoirs describes the area: "At West Point I had a class-mate in the last year of our studies he was my room-mate -F.T. Dent-, whose family resided some 5 miles west of Jefferson Barracks...as I had taken with me my horse, saddle and bridle, I soon found my way to White Haven, the name of the Dent estate. As I found the family congenial my visits became frequent....There was still an older daughter of 17, who had been spending several at boarding school in St. Louis. In February (1844) she returned to her country home. After that I do not know but (that) my visits became for frequent; they certainly did become more enjoyable. We would often take walks, or go on horseback to visit the neighbors, until I became quite well acquainted in that vicinity..... There is an insignificant creek-the Gravois- between Jefferson Barracks and the (Dent) place to which I was going, and at that day there was not a bridge over it from its source to its mouth. There is not water enough in the creek at ordinary stages to run a coffee mill, and at low water there is none running whatever." (It was near Gravois Creek that the Smarts lived.) Julia Dent Grant had two children born during the period while the Smarts remained in the neighborhood in 1850 and 1852." (63)
Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cook in his "Scenes and Adventures in the Army", left this pen picture of Jefferson Barracks life in the early days. "On New Year's morn many were they who found themselves at that log temple of hospitality, the mess house of the 1st, and paid their devoirs to a half whiskey barrel in the middle of an immense table, foaming to the top with egg-nogg. The 5th regiment that day entertained all at the post at dinner, and midnight found us still at the table. On the 8th of January, the 1st gave a splendid ball in an unfinished barrack; a noble display of flags was above and around us, with hundreds of bright muskets with a candle in the muzzle of each. Many from St. Louis were there; and Louisville, too, had several beautiful representatives." (29)
At this time a trip of twenty-five miles southwest from St. Louis would have taken the traveler through a rural area of Missouri known as Gravois and occupied by a few scattered farm families, whose farms were connected by wagon roads. It is quite possible that the Gravois area would have remained rural if interest in Missouri in the building of railroads had not developed, and specifically in building one from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean. (28)
6 Nov 1848 The first child born to Thomas and ann was Charlotte Elizabeth Smart who was born here at St. Louis, Missouri.
1849 Immigrants from Europe had been coming into the St. Louis area in increasing numbers due to the famine and political unrest in Ireland and Germany; they helped increase the city's population to about 64,000. The dread cholera appeared and in short time was declared to be at epidemic proportions. Out of a total if 8,431 deaths in St. Louis this year cholera claimed 4,144 victims.
17 May 1849 To add to the problems of the frightened, sorrowing and weary citizens, the steamboat White Cloud, lying near the foot of Morgan Street, caught fire in the evening of this day. From the White Cloud the flames spread to the steamer Edward Bates, which floated out and down the river, spreading its flames to the whole line of ships at the levee. The fire soon spread from the ships to the shore and burned all of the buildings on Front Street. The block extending to Vine Street was seriously damaged also. Nothing was left standing between Commercial Street and the levee. To prevent the holocaust from claiming the whole city, firemen dynamited six buildings. Unfortunately, the fire did not end the cholera epidemic, which did not reach its peak until the week ending July 2, 1849, when 619 persons died. (28)
The flames destroyed 33 river craft and 430 buildings, including the post office, three banks, and the tree principal printing shops. A dozen city blocks were reduced to ruin. Property loss was estimated as high as $10,000,000. So devastating a fire had never before occurred in the Unites States. And it occurred int eh midst of the worst of the city's cholera epidemics. (64)
Because of the increasing population of St. Louis, the outbreaks of contagious diseases, fires, the discomforts of heat, dust and dirt in the city made country living appear very attractive to many people and they gradually moved toward the rural area in which the Smarts lived. Recurrences of cholera appeared in 1850 and again in 1851 before the Smarts left for the West. (28)
18 Sep 1850 The U.S. Federal Census was taken this date at Carondelet Township in St. Louis County, Missouri. It indicates the SMART FAMILY as consisting of:
THOS. SMART age 26 born in Eng.
Thomas is listed as a Farmer with $2,000 in personal goods.
Their neighborhood consisted of the families of:
No.581 MATHIAS SCHAFLEY -miner-b. Ireland
If we look at the 1909 map of Carondelet land-holders we see near the intersection of the Missouri-Pacific Railroad and the St. Louis-San Francisco Railroad THE CONTINENTAL BRICK COMPANY, nearby is SAMUEL PARKS' SUBDIVISION, and land owned by IRENE M. MORRISON. (26) All this information helps us located the farm upon which the Smarts lived. Thomas was a brickmaker, tanner of hides and farmer while living in St. Louis; his neighbor in the 1850 census was Samuel Park, and he rented the farm upon which they lived from Major Morrison.
As industries grew around St. Louis the working of coal deposits a few miles outside the city on what is now Gravois Road became necessary. In 1846 these mines were actively worked. No doubt this was where the tow neighbors of the Smarts who were miners worked. When the mines were exhausted it was discovered that the thick beds of clay in the same neighborhood, and through which the shafts were sunk into the coal deposits wa fire clay of first rate quality -the best in the world for making posts and retorts for glass works and furnaces where a very high degree of heat is required. (31)
1851 Another cholera epidemic followed the first one; whole families were wiped out, and many lives were changed because of this pestilence. But in those days people were kindly and hospitable: room could always be found for another child or two, and much real Christian charity was practiced. Not far from the Smarts a Mr. Sappington, who lived down in Gravois, had taken in twenty-five small children whole parents, relatives of his, had all died of cholera. (30)
29 Apr 1850 A second child, Mariah Smart, was born to Thomas and Ann in St. Louis.
abt. May 1851 "Father had hired several men, one of whom was Henry Gale. Father often discovered Mr. Gale at eventide leaving the farm and losing himself in the adjoining woods. Father, becoming curious, questioned him and learned that he was attending little Mormon meetings in a log house not far distant.
Mr. Gale at first was timid regarding his faith, fearing his discharge, but was assured that so long as he did his work well, it mattered not as to his belief. As questions were put to him he explained in simple manner the First Principles of the Gospel. As soon as Thomas heard these teachings there at once came into his heart a silent but effective faith. He had kept himself from all churches, feeling that none were like the pattern of that taught by the Savior, but he longed for the truth. After hearing more of the first principles of the gospel, the Apostasy, and the Restoration, he recognized in these teachings principles for which he had for a long time looked for, but in vain. He had been a reader of scripture, believing strongly in a Father of all and the Gospel of the Redeemer, but had not so far discovered it in the Sects of the day. He asked his informant to take him to the next meeting. They went a few evenings later to a small schoolhouse in the nearby woods and there for the first time father heard an Elder speak. This only confirmed his former impressions and he was converted and, even then, was ready for baptism. He, however postponed action, desiring that his wife should share this blessing with him." (5: How They Became Mormons)
8 May 1851 The St. Louis Newspaper "MISSOURI REPUBLICAN" said: "Some two hundred Mormons left our city yesterday on the steamer STATESMAN for Council Bluffs, where they will, we learn, proceed immediately to Salt Lake.
Although we have no Mormon Church in St. Louis, and though these people have no other class or permanent possession or permanent interest in our city, yet their numerical strength here is greater than may be imagined. Our city is the greatest recruiting point for Mormon emigrants from England and the Eastern States, and the former especially, whose funds generally become exhausted by the time they reach it, generally stop here several months, and not unfrequantly remain among us a year or two pending a resumption of their journey to the Salt Lake.... There are at this time in St. Louis about three thousand English Mormons, nearly all of whom ar masters of some trade, or have acquired experience in some profession which they follow now. As was said, they have no church, but they attend divine service twice each Sunday at Concert Hall, and they celebrate their feasts and perform their devotional duties with the same regularity, if not in the same style, as their brethren in the valley. The apprehend none of the molestation here with which formerly and elsewhere they were visited. During the past winter they have not been behindhand with their fellow-citizens in devising modes to spend the time pleasantly. We heard frequently of Mormon balls and parties, and Concert Hall was on several occasions filled with persons gathered to witness Mormon theatrical performances. WE have witnessed the congregation as it issued from the hall at the religious meetings on sundays, and certainly we think it does not compare unfavorably with the other congregations." (27)
1 June 1851 "About this day Thomas S. Smart with the Elders presented the Gospel Message to his wife, and began a six week study of it." (5: How they Became Mormons)
18 June 1851 The interest in building the Pacific Railroad from St. Louis culminated on this day when the board selected the Missouri River route. (log 28)
28 June 1851 The MISSOURI REPUBLICAN reported: "Upwards of 1,000 "Saints" had arrived at St. Louis since spring, not more than 600 of whom have been able to leave." (27)
4 July 1851 The Pacific Railroad company held their elaborate ground breaking ceremony to which hundreds of St. Louisans flocked into the downtown area to witness the historical occasion. With flags waving and bands playing St. Louis had never before witnessed such a spectacle, as the mayor shoveled the first spade of earth into the pond- and the great Pacific Railroad was officially launched. Progress on the railroad slowed then stopped altogether until the contracts were re-liet in January 1852. (The rails were laid through Kirkwood a suburb near by the Smarts home; but not soon enough for them to ride; for they left for Utah territory a year later in a Wagon Train.)
12 JULY 1851 “Thomas and Ann after studying the Gospel for six weeks and attending the meetings both baptized and confirmed members of the L.D.S. Church. He was baptized by John A. Richards and she by Samuel Obray. One time when father was sitting in the home of Major Morrison he had a peculiar experience. A male personage suddenly appeared and tapping him on the shoulder said. ‘Do not believe in the Book of Mormon, for it is not true.’ Having a testimony of the truth, he said, ‘I knew that he must be a lying spirit and I rebuked him in the name of the Lord, and he suddenly disappeared.’” (5 : How They Became Mormons)
Spring 1852 Charlotte’s biography continues- “Spring of 1852 was awakening the countryside. During the Winter the Mormons in St. Louis had talked of little else but the journey; the main body of “Saints” who having been driven from their homes in Nauvoo, Illinois, had sought refuge in the Utah Territory, in the fastness of the Rocky Mountains. All who were able to do so were instructed by the leadership of the church to come.
After several family councils and much prayer, Thomas Smart, his wife Ann and their five children, ranging in ages from one-and-a-half to ten years, decided to join a small independent company leaving St. Louis that spring. They gathered their possessions, converted what monies they had into supplies, a wagon and oxen, and prepared to leave. There were 17 wagons in all, and 20 families.” (24)
OCTOBER 1852 Horace S Eldrige was sent from Utah to preside over the St. Louis district and to act as General Emigration Agent for the Church here. (More that eleven companies had left in 1852). (27)
Chapter 5 AMERICAN FORK, UTAH COUNTY, UTAH
Autumn 1852 This was a stirring time in Utah valley, south of Salt Lake Valley. This year of increased migration across the plains brought an influx of new settlers to American Fork and the area thereabouts. October saw the travelers coming down Echo and Emigration Canyons. The question many of them faced was where to settle. (40)
28 Dec 1852 The Bishops Report for 1852 lists Thomas Smart as living in American Fork Ward. This Report was a Registry of names of persons residing in the various wards or the church. John G. Carpenter is also listed as in American Fork Ward, he was probably a member of the wagon train in which the Smart Family came to Utah. (34)
American Fork first been settled in the fall of 1850, and in the early part if 1851 several more families settled there. The first houses in American Fork were built of logs cut by the settlers in the nearby mountains. Some of these logs were hewn and some unhewn, and the cracks between the logs were chinked with chips or other available material, and then covered with two or three inches of mud mortar. Nails were scarce and in many of these houses wooden pegs were used in their place. The roofs were made by the use of small timber of poles for rafters, placed at a sufficient angle to shed the water in case of rain. The rafters were then covered with willows and rushes, on top of which a coating of a few inches of clay soil completed the job.
The log house generally consisted of one square room, with sometimes a shanty added at the back. The ceiling was low to keep in the heat; and the chimney, built of rock or mud at one end of the room in the center of the wall, ended in a fireplace. The door was made of rough material, and the one or two windows were small; and at that early period, glass not being available, greased paper or other translucent material was often used in its stead. The floor in most cases was smooth packed ground.
The first settlers located at various points along the creek, and when the townsite was surveyed only a few people moved to the town lots. (41)
abt. 1853 The Spanish-Mexicans who came to the Territory engaged in trading with the Indians in Sanpete Valley and elsewhere. They were exchanging horses for Indian children and firearms, the Indian children having been stolen by the Utes from their enemies.
The Mexicans were arrested and the court decide against them liberating the Indian slaves in their possession. Some of the slave traders then stirred up the Indians against the Utah county settlers. (42)
1853 When trouble broke out with the Indians in 1853, orders ere given by General Daniel H. Wells that forts should be built for the protection of the settlers from the Indians. (41)
April 1853 By this time the situation had become so serious that governor Young on arriving at Provo while on a tour of inspection of the Territory, felt impelled to issue a proclamation warning the people against the acts of the Mexicans, and to be on their guard against Indian attack. (42)
23 April 1853 On this date Thomas Smart was mustered in as a Private in the Infantry command by Capt. Samuel H. Rogers in the Utah County Militia at American Fork. His equipment consisted of 1 Musket, 1 pound of Rifle Powder, 2 pounds of Lead and 1 Powder Horn. His future friend and relative Lorenzo Hatch was a Corporal in this same company. Their Company was in a regiment command by Colonel Peter W. Cownover. (43, 44)
1 Many 1853 Thomas and Ann Smart both re-baptized by William Parsons in the American Fork ward. (45)
22 May 1853 Thomas Smart was ordained an Elder by Elder Glaud Rodgers in the American Fork Ward. (45)
July 1853 This month the Indians began to make considerable excitement through't the Territory by committing depredations. (45)
23 July 1853 A meeting was held in the school house at which Parley P. Pratt and Lorenzo Snow were present. They urged upon the people the necessity of their moving together, and it was unanimously agreed to follow the counsel given and take immediate steps for the building of a fort. (41)
24 July 1853 The ward Clerk recorded: "The Brethren had designed a Celebration this day by feasting etc. But alas the scene was changed. We had to all desert our houses etc. and come together for safety, and (with) our harvest on our hands, General Orders (were) given to remove our houses into a fort and stand Guard. (45)
During the month of July and early August, most of the log cabins built on the farms were moved within the confines of the proposed fort, which was eighty rods long and seventy-four rods wide, containing approximately 37 acres. The City council passed an ordinance providing that a wall be built around the fort, it was to be twelve feet high and six feet wide at the base and two feet thick at the top. Every individual owning a lot within the limits of the city was required to build the wall across his lot and tax was levied for the rest.
The wall was constructed of clay or adobes, an the houses were located a few rods inside the wall with the private corrals in front of the houses of which the public corral was the center. Into this public corral the private corrals opened, so that each man might turn his animals so into the public here, later to be taken out by the herders to the grounds outside the fort for their daily feed.
Considerable urging was required for the building of the fort, and the efforts of the ward teachers were brought into play to stimulate this project. As Indians became less aggressive and more peaceable, the necessity of the wall grew less, and no part of it attained the height of twelve feet as originally planned. (41)
Summer 1853 The Ute Indians, in Utah County, went on the warpath again in what is known as the Walker War, so named from the fact that Chief Walker, or Walkara, was considered the moving spirit of the hostilities. The Indians continued stealing cattle, burning outlying houses and mills, and occasionally wounding or killing some lone settler. Travel from place to place was unsafe and was usually not attempted except in groups large enough for self protection. (42)
8 Jan 1854 Thomas Smart's child was blessed, and named Thomas, by Jno. Mercer in the American Fork Ward. (45)
Fall 1854 One morning at daybreak, the settlers in the northwestern part of Provo were aroused from their slumbers, and startled by the firing of guns. It was found that a band of Shoshones, or Snakes, as they were commonly called, had unexpectedly made an attack on an encampment of Utes near the Provo Fort wall; being unprepared for the attack the Utes were routed and a number of them killed or wounded. Among the latter was a troublesome Ute named Squash. The Utes scurried through the valley securing the assistance of their tribesmen, and pursuing the Shoshones, who had retreated toward Pleasant Grove near American Fork where the Smarts then lived. Some further fighting ensued, but the Indians on both sides were so wary in their combat that there were no additional casualties. The Shoshones after their flight up Provo Canyon were not heard from again.
The Utes were much incensed because the whites had not come to their assistance, and in revenge killed about thirty head of cattle belonging to the settlers. (22)
4 Feb 1855 A meeting at the School House in American fork was dismissed by prayer (and they adjourned to) the water side- here Ann Smart was re-baptized by John McNeal and confirmed along with others. (45)
11 Feb 1855 At 11 am. a meeting at the School House was held after which the following were baptized:
Alice Smart- first time by John Mercer
24 Sep 1855 The following subscribed (donated) potatoes for Pres. Joseph Young: (list includes) Thos. Smart 1 bushel. (45)
21 Oct 1856 The meeting met at the Waters edge near Bro. Adam's Mill. Prayer by Elder P.P. Hunt; Pres. John Young gave some good instructions on the nature of covenants then all that went forth in Baptism raised their right hand that they would keep their covenants. A group were then Baptized among which was Ann Smart re-baptized by J. V. Long. (45)
27 Oct 1856 Mary A. Smart was re-baptized in American Fork by John Mercer. (45)
27 Oct 1856 Mary A. Smart was re-baptized in American Fork by John Mercer. (45)
Chapter 6 PROVO, UTAH COUNTY, UTAH
1856 Our family history tells us that because Thomas had a knowledge of the tanning business he was induced to become a member of a company of Brethren in Provo who had a tannery and a shoe-shop. Upon the business not succeeding financially, Thomas was asked to move to Provo and manage the business, which he did sometime in 1856. Under his supervision it was freed from debt in one year. (Em to Zion)
Samuel Clark was the first man in the tanning business in Provo; he had been called here from Salt Lake by President Brigham Young in the winter of 1849. He set up his new industry for tanning hides and manufacturing leather and even made shoes on a limited basis; he moved his tannery several times from the fort to his farm and back to the fort again as Indians caused problems with the settlers. He was 58 years old when Thomas came to Provo and may have been ready to retire from that business when the new Company was formed. His daughter Anna Clark remarried Solomon Henry Hale and together they helped settle Bear Lake County and the area North of Franklin, Idaho where the Smarts were early Pioneers also. (46, 47)
Few years have been more eventful for Provo than those between 1855 and 1859 (the period the Smart's lived here). The grasshoppers of 1855 scourged the country bare, and the bitter cold and high drifting snows of the winter completed the work of devastation. Cattle died everywhere of cold and starvation.
The year that followed was a famine year; the people of Provo lived largely on roots, greens, and fish. Privation was great, but nobody starved; the people retained their humane integrity, the fellowship by which they had builded their community. They had around them the fruits of their six years labor; a solidly built, partially walled city of come 2,000 inhabitants, networked by canals and bulwarked by broad farms, proud in the possession of a town hall, a church and bowery, a tithing office, five schools, two hotels, a number of mills, a public library, a musical society, and a dramatic association. Ambitious manufacturing enterprises were projected for the town. (48)
26 Feb 1856 Thomas Smart commenced service as a private in Capt. John Bourne's Company of Infantry in the Utah Military District. (probably from Provo). They were employed in the expedition made against the Utah Indians in the months of February and March of this year. He was paid at the rate of $1.50 per day for 14 days which amounted to $21.00 payment. His term of service expired on 10 March 1856. (43)
Feb. 1856 What is known as the Tintic War resulted from the outbreak of a band of renegade Ute Indians under Chief Tintic. These Indians were living in Cedar Valley, west of Utah Lake; and lacking food, they began stealing cattle from herds in the vicinity; they also killed two herdsmen. A writ for the arrest of Chief Tintic and his followers fro these crimes was issued by the Judge of the District Court in Provo and was placed in the hands of Deputy U.S. Marshall Tom Johnson for service. Johnson enlisted a posse of about forty men and proceeded by way of Lehi. In Cedar Valley the Deputy Marshall divided his force; he, with a number of his men went to the north settlement, while about ten others were detailed, under the command of others were detailed, under the command of Deputy marshall George Parrish to go to the South Fort, afterwards known as Camp Floyd. Parrish discovered Tintic and his band camped a mile and a half from the fort. He asked the chief to come to the Fort and surrender but Tintic was not so minded and manifested a hostile attitude. After a brief skirmish in which the chief was wounded in the hand, he made good his escape. The Indians followed their chief, and the white men opened fire as the redskins ran from the camp. George Carson one of the white boys was mortally wounded; four warriors and one squaw were killed, and several other Indians wounded.
Deputy Marshall Johnson came immediately with his men and pursued the Indians to Rush Valley; a parley was held, but the Indians refused to surrender and fired upon the posse. The next day it was found that the Indians had broken camp and retreated into the mountains; it was learned that Colonel Cownover with a force of eighty men had crossed Utah Lake on the ice, and were following the Indians. Col. Cownover was acting in accordance with instructions received from Governor Young. With his company he took up the trail of the Indians where they had crossed the mountains, pursued them all day, and that night camped in Tintic Valley, just out of the mouth of the canyon. On the second day, the pursuing party came so close upon the Indians in the lower end of Tintic Valley that the savages took fright and left the stock behind, except a few saddle horses, and the company returned with the stock. No further effort was made to pursue or punish the Indians. (42)
The Tintic conflict ended organized Indian depredations in Utah valley until the Black Hawk War, (which occurred after the Smarts left for Cache Valley). However, a large well-trained active militia was maintained at Provo until the close of the Indian wars in the State of Utah. Provo itself did not suffer from later Indian depredations, but more than furnished its quota of men, arms and equipment for the relief of the other settlements. fort Utah (Provo) was still used as a headquarters and armory for the troops. (49)
Summer 1856 The economic situation improved after harvesting began, but a new complexity entering into the lives of the people was the "Reformation" promulgated by the church leaders during the autumn of 1856. For several years past the church authorities had felt the people to be walking less sternly under the eye of God than their responsible membership in the Church demanded, and the time had come for a change. In Provo, as all over the Territory of Utah, ward officials walked among the brethren, catechizing them as to their sins, urging them to forsake error, confess, and be baptized in a renewal of their covenant with the Lord. The catechizers were instructed that they were not at liberty to pry into sins that were between a person and his or her God, but such persons were to be encouraged "to confess to the proper authorities that the adversary may not have an opportunity to take advantage of human weakness and thereby destroy souls." The fervent Saints responded, and in all the wards in Provo the people were rebaptized for remission of their sins. The Smarts have taken care of this while they were living in American Fork, as the Ward Records there reveal. (48)
1857 President James Buchanan issued an order terminating Brigham Young's governorship and ordered General W. H. Harney (later replaced by Col. Albert Sidney Johnston) to proceed west with United States troops and quell the so-called rebellion in Utah. Brigham received the news calmly, but the militia was called out, scouts were sent to report the progress of the army, and guerilla companies departed to stampede army stock, burn supply trains, and in general to harass the approaching army. Military districts were organized. Peter W. Cownover headed the Provo District.
Young told the U.S. Army's advance man bluntly that the army should be resisted. The Mormons had no faith in the good intentions of the Government. "We do not want to fight the United States," he said, "but if they drive us to it, we shall do the best we can.." (48)
Brigham young wrote to Congress..."The Constitution of our common country guarantees unto us all that we do now, or have ever claimed. If the constitutional rights which pertain unto us as American Citizens were extended to Utah, according to the spirit and meaning thereof, and fairly and impartially administered, it is all that we could ask, all that we have ever asked. Our opponents have availed themselves of prejudices existing against us because of our religious faith, to send out a formidable host to accomplish our destruction. We have had no privilege, no opportunity of defending ourselves from the false, foul, and unjust aspersions against us before the nation. The government has not condescended to cause an investigation committee or other persons to be sent to inquire into and ascertain the truth, as is customary in such cases....Our duty to ourselves, to our families, requires us not to tamely submit to be driven and slain, without an attempt to preserve ourselves..." (50)
April 1857 In compliance with the Territorial reorganization order, Provo military district assembled and organized into companies of tens and fifties under the supervision of Colonel Peter W. Cownover. There were about sixty commissioned officers elected tat this time. On July 6, 1857, and again on July 11, additional reorganization took place. Colonel William B. Pace was placed in the command of the Utah county military district, which according to Peter W. Cownover, totaled a thousand men capable of bearing arms. (49)
25 April 1857 Thomas Smart was mustered in as Sargent in Capt. Joshua Davis' Company H, of the 4th Battalion at Provo by P. W. Cownover. He had 1 Musket, a half pound of Powder, and 1 lb. Lead. He was in this service until 5 Sep 1857. (43)
March 1857 A Mormon Council decided to abandon resistance to the army and enter upon an evacuation into the deserts. To the settlements in northern Utah Brigham Young sent word to prepare for migration, leaving behind only enough men to fire the houses and crops in the event the troops proved unalterably hostile. Evacuation began at once from all settlements north of Utah County. The settlers packed their wagons, hitched their teams, and set out for Provo. Cummings, the new Governor, attempted to dissuade the people from leaving their homes. They paid him no heed. (48)
17 May 1857 Thomas Smart was made a member of the 45th Quorum of the Seventies in Provo. He was ordained by Daniel Allen. (51)
5 July 1857 Thomas Smart was in a muster as a Sargent, in 2nd Lt. Israel Penrod's 3rd 10, of Capt. Joshua Davis' Company H in the 4th Battalion (from Provo). His equipment consisted of 1 Musket, a half pound Powder and 1 pound of Lead. (43)
5 Sep 1857 Sargent Thomas Smart is listed in a muster of the 3rd Platoon under 2nd Lt. Israel Penrod, in Capt. Joshua Davis' Company H, of the 4th Battalion from Provo City Military District.
9 Sep 1857 William B. Pace of Head Quarters Provo, Military District reported in a letter to Adj. General James Ferguson that there is about 200 stand of Arms in this District (aside from Capt. Joseph Clarks Co.) that are in good condition. The remains are mostly shot guns that would not do to depend upon. We have 2 or 3 gun smiths engaged in fitting and repairing everything in the shape of arms making swords, knives etc. Wagons are being repaired, horses shod, provisions stored and we are now able to march 50 or 100 men well fitted for a campaign at a moments notice.
We have from 10 to 20 men in the Mountains East exploring the country but we are not yet prepared to give you a full & complete report of there doings until they return again.
21 Mr 1858 The Citizens of G.S.L.C. and the settlements North of it agreed to abandon their homes and go South, all the information derived from Eastern papers being to the effect that he approaching formidable army was sent to destroy them. (52)
May 1858 Thirty thousand brought their high-piled wagons south into Utah Valley. Accommodations of the crudest kind were all that Provo could offer. All were crowded into the settlers' homes who could be, and every assistance given those forced to camp out. Temporary houses were built by the church on the public square. They were built close together like a fort, some of them to stow grain in. (48, 52)
For the past 6 or 7 months Johnston's army had been harried by mounted raiders and were forced to spend the winter in the mountains. The task force raiding the supply trains and columns on the plains had been strengthened by the moving into Echo Canyon of the Nauvoo Legion's main defensive force of approximately 1,200 men-known as the Eastern expedition. Militiamen of the Eastern Expedition had been recruited from the Utah communities, and locally outfitted with clothing, boots, blankets, food and guns. (49,53)
4 June 1858 Thomas Smart served 21 days for Thomas Guthrie in Wooley's Detachment of Infantry. The Regiment of Infantry was commanded by Major Franklin B. Wooley, William E. Nuttall as Captain, John McEwan 1st Lt, Joseph Cluff 2nd Lt. and Richard Jones Sgt. who all served the 21 days. It was called the Nauvoo Legion Eastern Expedition. (43)
7 June 1858 (Monday) Peace Commissioners Powell & McCullough arrived in S.L.C. and later met with Brigham Young. (52)
15 June 1858 The Commissioners Powell & McCullough Visited Provo. The next day Mr. Powell addressed an audience of about 4,000 persons in the Bowery, at Provo, Utah County. (52)
Mid-June 1853 The U.S. army broke camp on Black's Fork, and came into Salt Lake Valley. Crossing the Jordan, they marched southwest to establish Camp Floyd in Cedar Valley, west of Utah Lake. (48)
Anna Clark Hale, in her Memoirs tells how it was for the people of Provo: "Its easy to remember how the Saints came flocking into Provo by the thousands, pitching their tents, camping in covered wagon-beds on the ground, throwing together make-shift log cabins, etc.- many going on to Springville and other parts near by. (47)
30 June 1858 Brigham Young gave the order: "All who wish to return to their homes in Great Salt Lake City are at liberty to do so." (48)
Anna Clarke Hale, who was 17 at that time, continues: "I want to tell you that this was a time when we girls had to stay close to home, and never be caught out alone anywhere. The officers and soldiers were coming into our town as thick as bees, and were hot after the girls." (47)
The Smart children at this time were of the following ages:
Mary Ann age 15
8 Mar 1859 U.S. Judge Cradlebaugh organized his court in the Old Seminary in Provo. To the astonishment of the citizenry he had in attendance a detachment of 100 soldiers from Camp Floyd. Ignoring the Territorial law which provided that the Second Judicial Court should meet at Fillmore hi chose Provo probably because of its proximity to Camp Floyd. (48)
10 March 1859 The mayor of Provo and City Council were memorialized by the citizens "to remove from our mists" the troops whose presence constituted "a gross violation of our liberties and municipal immunities." The Judge replied by ordering up 900 additional men from Camp Floyd. The U.S. Attorney-General settled the matter; but before his correspondence was received from Washington, Johnston had thought it expedient to remove the greater part of his troops. (48)
Summer 1860 With the beginning of the Civil War General Albert Sidney Johnston was ordered from Camp Floyd with his troops. Although the order created no stir in Provo, there was a lessening of the tension that had hung over the city. Patiently the citizens awaited the final evacuation of the troops. They would still have to deal with the camp followers and hangers-on who would be left behind, but that situation could be met. (48)
abt 1860 Myron Tanner, an early resident of Provo states in his Biography: "In those days Provo was in large measure a rendevous for old Californians who often came there to pass the winter and to amuse themselves in those pastimes peculiar to the life of miners and ranchers. Rough and Reckless elements gathered in Provo from mining camps and from California. This frontier element in Provo gave the place an unenviable reputation." (54)
14 May 1860 A daughter, Frances Ann, was born to Thomas and Ann Smart at Provo. (41)
27 June 1860 Their daughter Frances Ann was blessed in the Provo First Ward by Thomas Smart, Emanuel Garret & James Pack. Thomas must have returned to his family for this occasion; as he is listed as the one of the Pioneers to settle Franklin, Idaho arriving there on the 15th of April this year. (41, 55)
Aug 1860 Daughter Frances Ann Smart was buried in Provo. (3,4)
Chapter 7 FRANKLIN, IDAHO
The Utah War, the loss of portions of Nevada and settlements in Southern California, and the increase of migration to Utah, taxed the capacities of the remaining areas and led Brigham Young to turn more attention to the settlement of Cache Valley, especially since it had been proven that grain could be grown there. He weighed in his mind the dry regions of the south with their periodic drought but milder climate against the rich grass lands of the north with their plentiful streams and rich soils but their devastating winters, and the possibility that the pioneers might suffer a massacre by the Shoshoni who considered Cache Valley their own hunting ground; the result was that he sent Peter Maughan to make the first settlement in the South end of the valley. (55)
By 1859 settlements had been made as far north as Richmond and the Valley was well advertised in the Deseret News, and the description of the excellent ranges reached most of the southern settlements. (55)
These glowing reports stimulated the people living in less favorable locations to consider moving north. That is exactly what Thomas Smart did--first visiting the Valley, making his decision, and then being chosen to lead a group of about 50 families from Provo and the surrounding communities to settle what was to become Franklin, the oldest permanent settlement in Idaho. The Provo group consisted of Thomas S. Smart, Samuel Handy, William Handy, Enoch Broadbent, Joseph Perkins, Joseph Dunkley and William T. Wright. (56)
10 April 1860 The Provo group left Wellsville (Peter Maughan's settlement in the south) and started for northern Cache Valley. They reached Coveville and camped for tree days. (56)
11 April 1860 They looked over the Franklin area (first known as Green Meadows) and built a bridge over a creek (Spring Creek) to be used when the other settlers would join them. (56)
14 April 1860 The camp being divided into two groups; the first group left Camp Cove early in the morning. They met an Indian at the Bridge across Spring Creek but were allowed to pass. The Indians were under Chief Kittemare who welcomed the whites to the land, water and timber. Kittemare and his band were great beggars and exacted, beef, flour, grain, potatoes etc. quite often from the pioneers. (55)
15 April 1860 The second group came the next day. They included Thomas Smart and his friends noted by William Woodward in his Notes this day: THOMAS S. Smart, Sam Handy, Joseph Perkins, Joseph Dunkley William T. Wright, and others. (55)
They all moved their wagons close together for protection, removed the wagon boxes, which they used for homes, and used the wagon gears to haul logs from the canyon to build their hoses. Their houses were built in the form of a square fort enclosing about ten acres. This northern outpost of Cache Valley was in Indian country, and the fifty men who formed the settlement by the end of 1860 guarded the fort closely. They planted crops which yielded but a meager harvest. As soon as the snow melted, however, the cattle revived from the nutritious grasses. (55)
Bishop Maughan was the presiding authority in cache Valley, he appointed temporary leaders for the new "Green-Meadows" settlement. Thomas S. Smart was chosen as leader, with Samuel Rose Parkinson and James Sanderson as assistants; Alfred Alder was chosen as clerk. This leadership had charge of the affairs of the colony. They had charge of the public works; they presided over meetings and supervised everything of a public nature. They had no idea they would eventually be in Idaho. All they knew was that Brigham Young had asked them to come and settle on the Muddy River (Cub River) and they came. (56)
8 June 1860 Brigham Young paid them a visit. At that time he appointed Preston Thomas to be their first Bishop and thomas was named as a Counselor in the Bishopric, a position he filled for quite some time with great fidelity. (5,56)
At the meeting held in Franklin Brigham Young said: "I learn there is no bishop in this place, though three men have been chosen as a council to preside. I would like to know the feelings of the people here about a bishop." Brother Maughan moved that President Young nominate a bishop. President Young said, "I will nominate Brother Preston Thomas bishop of this place." It was carried Unanimously. "He was going to Soda Springs but I wish him to stay here and be your bishop." (55)
Brigham Young advised the pioneers to exercise caution in dealing with the Indians, holding conferences with them, visiting them, and making gifts to them. He wrote that "it is cheaper to feed the Indians than to fight them.
Though the Indians of Cache Valley resented the invasion of their hunting grounds by the pioneers, they did not unite to oppose the intruders.
Some of the Indians were friends with the white men and manifested their good will in many ways. Others stole horses and cattle in retaliation for the occupation of their lands. (55) Thomas S. Smart took his turn standing guard on Mt. Look-Out (at a later time even called Mt. Smart in his honor). (15)
5 Sep 1861 MUSTER ROLL of the Cache Military District; Regiment commanded by Col. Ezra T. Benson
In the First Battalion of Cavalry we find: THOMAS SMART, Capt. of the 5th Ten. He was equipped with 1 Horse, 1 Saddle, 1 Bridle, and 1 Sims. Samuel Parkinson and Andrew Morrison were also members of his group, which was short four men. (57)
6 Apr 1862 Finally another Boy was born to Thomas & Ann at Franklin. He was later named William Henry Smart after both of his grandfathers. (3)
Winter 1862-3 A large body of Shoshoni & Bannock Indians, under Chiefs Bear-Hunter, Pocatello, and Sagwich, camped near the mouth of a stream now called Battle Creek, about twelve miles northwest of the settlement of Franklin, conditions became so bad that many outlying homes were abandoned, the occupants moving to settlements of the valley, Franklin being the nearest to the Indian camp suffered the most.
In late December 1862, a party of miners coming down from the Salmon River mining country for supplies missed the ford on Bear River near Franklin in a snowstorm. Indians from the Battle Creek camp, followed the party and fired upon them near Richmond, killing one man and wounding several others. The miners hid in the bushes until night, then went to Richmond about 6 miles south of Franklin and told their story. (58)
Jan 1863 The power of the Indians was largely broken in January when Colonel Connor and 400 United States troops from Fort Douglass in SLC fought a battle with the Indians at the junction of Battle Creek and Bear River and killed 368 Indians including 90 women and children. Though the settlers sorrowed that some peaceful Indians and women and children had been killed, they rejoiced in the victory because it broke the spirit and power of the Indians and enabled the settlers to occupy new choice locations previously considered unsafe. This gave the settlers opportunity to leave the fort and settle on their city lots and farm lands. The settlers had to remain alert during these years of Indian difficulty and lost many houses and cattle and had to give up much flour and food to keep the Indians at peace. (56)
30 Jan 1863 Bishop Preston Thomas called three men from the Militia to go to the scene of the battle to ascertain if any of the Indians were still alive. Mr. Hull, one of the men, described it as follows: "We drove our sleigh as far as the river and rode our horses through the river. The first sight to greet us was an old Indian walking, slowly with arms folded, his head bowed in grief, lamenting the dead, he didn't speak to us, and soon left, going toward the north. Never will I forget the scene, dead bodies were everywhere. I counted eight deep in one place and in several places they were 3 to 5 deep; all in all we counted nearly four hundred; two thirds of this number being women and children.
We found two Indian women alive whose thighs had been broken by the bullets. Two little boys and one little girl about three years of age were still living. The little girl was badly wounded, having eight flesh wounds in her body. They were very willing to go with us. We took them on our horses to the sleigh, and made them as comfortable as possible.
When we arrived in Franklin, Nathan Packer, with the help of others set the broken bones of the Indian women. The squaws were taken care of by the people; soon afterwards they joined a tribe of Indians that came to Franklin from Bear Lake." (59)
The boys were given homes, one of them known as "Shem" was cared for in the home of William Nelson over a period of two years after which he was taken into the home of Samuel R. Parkinson. He was listed as a "domestic servant" in the Parkinson Family in the 1870 Census. Thomas Smart Jr. about 1875 had Shem Parkinson living with him on Work Creek (Glendale) a few miles north of Franklin; helping his wife with the chores when he was gone freighting. Family tradition is that Shem lived until he was about 22 years old and died in Pocatello of Pneumonia. (59)
1863 This year Thomas S. Smart and Samuel R. Parkinson built the first sawmill in the area of franklin. Lumber from this mill was used in building homes on the surveyed land around the fort. (56)
16 June 1863 MUSTER ROLL of Cache Military District: Regiment commanded by Col. Ezra T. Benson: In the Cavalry COMPANY A we find: THOMAS SMART Lt. leading the 5th Ten. He was equipped with: 1 Horse, 1 Saddle, 1 Bridle, 1 Gun, 1 Pistol, and 50 Rounds of ammunition. Samuel Parkinson is listed as his Sargent and the other men were: Joseph Nelson, Andrew Morrison, N. Packer, Robert Hull, N. Comish, Wm. Howell, C. Stephens and Jno. Messervey. The whole Battalion consisted of 175 Cavalry, 652 Infantry totaling 789 men. (57)
14 Sep 1864 The settlers of Franklin Narrowly missed disaster. Some hundreds of Indians camping north of town, procured liquor from two of the settlers and became menacing. A drunken Indian tried to ride his horse over a white woman. To save hr life one of the settlers shot the Indian and then escaped. The red mane then seized one of the white men, Robert Hull, and threatened to kill him unless the offending settler was given to the Indians for compensation. While Bishop lorenzo H. Hatch pleaded with the Indians not to kill the captive, messengers rode that night to the other towns for assistance.
The next morning 300 Minute Men arrived from Logan and other places under command of Major Thomas Ricks accompanied by Bishop Peter Maughan. Peter and Lorenzo held a conference with Chief Washakie. The Indian chief told the Mormon leader that the whiskey sold by the two white settlers caused the trouble. Peter Maughan agreed to give the Indians two yoke of oxen and this prevented a serious situation from developing. (56)
abt 1865 Thomas prided himself in his well kept thrifty stock and intensive cultivation of his little farm in the suburbs of Franklin. He always held that this farm was purchased under the spirit of revelation, he having been awakened twice the same night by a voice telling him to arise and buy it. Early next morning he was found awaiting the owner, Alma Taylor, and purchased it from him at that time. (5)
15 Feb. 1866 Another girl was born to Thomas & Ann, they later named her Mary Jane Smart, she was Ann Hayter Smart's last child. (3)
abt 1868 Thomas made one trip himself across the plains (to assist emigrating Saints), being an assistant to Capt. Loveland; and for several years his teams were sent with drivers to bring more emigrants across the plains. (8)
26 Sep 1868 Thomas married Margaret Juset, an immigrant from Italy, in the Old Endowment House in Salt Lake City. The two wives did not get along well and this marriage ended in divorce. (5, 15)
8 Aug 1870 The Smarts and Parkinsons were living as neighbors in the 1870 CENSUS IN FRANKLIN:
Dwelling No. 102
Parkinson, Samuel age 38 farmer
Dwelling No. 103
Parkinson, Charlotte age 21 keeping house
Dwelling No. 104
Parkinson, Maria age 19 keeping house
Dwelling No. 105
Smart, Thomas age 46 farmer
Dwelling No. 106
Smart, Margaret age 23 keeping house (60)
5 Nov 1870 A daughter was born to his plural wife Margaret, she was later named Margaret Jane Smart after her mother. (3)
When the Oneida Stake was organized, Thomas was ordained to the office of High Priest and was set apart as a member of the Oneida Stake High Council by Apostle Franklin D. Richards. He served faithfully in this position for a number of years, or as long as his natural powers in waining years of his life would permit. (5)
20 June 1875 Shem Parkinson (Indian boy) was RE-baptized this day by T. Lowe Sr. in Franklin and confirmed by J. Hatch. Most of the people in Franklin seem to have been RE-baptized during the month of June. (61)
22 June 1876 Ann Hayter was killed by a shaft of lightning, during a storm, at her home in Franklin while sewing on her machine near the open door. Her son, William Henry Smart being at her side. She was buried on the farm in the Family Cemetery. (5)
20 Mar 1879 Three years after Ann's death Thomas married Minnie Amelia Shrives in the Salt Lake Endowment House. (3)
14 July 1880 A new son was born to Minnie at Franklin, he was named Leslie Edwin Smart. (3)
9 May 1882 Another son was born to Thomas an Minnie at Franklin, he died this same day, he was named Vernon Smart. (3)
16 Dec 1885 A daughter was born to Minnie, this being her first daughter, she was named Iva Lilla Smart. (3)
14 July 1886 This year Thomas Sharratt Smart and his son William Henry Smart left Franklin on a Genealogical Mission to England. (5)
1889 The Railroad having been extended north to Franklin, Thomas S. Smart with his two older sons, Thomas and William entered into a partnership under the name of Smart & Sons, they were dealers in General Merchandise, Poultry and all kinds of Produce. (62)
30 May 1889 Another son was born to Thomas and Minnie at Franklin, he was named Melvin Shrives Smart, he was to be Thomas's last child. (3)
Records of a local merchant in Franklin indicate how transactions were made at this time when money was scarce. Thomas S. Smart had an account for purchases of Wire, Meat, Sacks, etc which were paid for by trade of Veal, eggs, hay, team work, butter, grain and other produce. (62)
29 Sep 1892 Thomas and Minnie were active in doing Temple work at the Logan Temple. (4)
1892 Thomas had an account at the Monson Lumber Co. in Franklin, charges during the year were made for Lumber, sawing, Sawdust, and plaining; payments were made by Script, Mutton and Lumber. (62)
1892 Charges at Monson's Lumber Co. were for sawing, lumber, moulding and shingles; payments made by Lumber & Script. (62)
He was practical and sometimes severely so. Sometime before his death, he ordered his coffin from a local firm to be made out of Oregon pine, to be finished in the natural grain without any covering and without worldly trappings. Every few days he would go to the firm to see what progress was being made to hurry them along. (3)
18 April 1901 He passed away in the town which he aided in founding, surrounded by all of his living children and many friends. He had pursued the active duties of life to within a few days of his death. (FH)
He was buried beside Ann on the farm in the Family Cemetery.
1- FAMILY HISTORY By William
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